By Krishna Raju
Publication by means of Walstra, P., Walstra, Pieter, Wouters, Jan T. M., Geurts, Tom J.
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Additional info for Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design
11). One of the principal problems associated with precast concrete piles is unseen breakage due to hard driving conditions. Jointed precast concrete piles when driven through soft or loose soils on to hard rock are particularly susceptible to damage. On some sites, the rock surface may slope steeply, causing the piles to deviate from a true line and break into short sections near the toe. Accumulations of boulders over bedrock can also cause the piles to be deflected with consequent breakage. Where such conditions are expected, it is advisable to provide a central inspection hole in test piles and sometimes in a proportion of the working piles.
Allowance must also be made for reductions in the cross-sectional area due to drilling or notching and the taper on a round log. Typical pile lengths are from 5 to 18 m carrying applied loads from 5 to 350 kN. The maximum capacity of the pile will be limited by the set achievable without causing damage. Large numbers of timber piles, mainly Norwegian spruce, are driven below the water table in the Netherlands every year for light structures, housing, roads and embankments. 8 times the characteristic compressive strength measured parallel to the grain.
1 Protecting timber piles from decay by (a) precast concrete upper section above water level and (b) by extending pile cap below water level. with preservative or greatly minimised by the use of a hardwood of a species known to be resistant to borer attack. The various forms of these organisms, the form of their attack and the means of overcoming it are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. Bark should be removed from round timbers where these are to be treated with preservative. If this is not done, the bark reduces the depth of impregnation.
Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design by Krishna Raju