By J.H.U. Brown, J.F. Dickson
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Extra resources for Advances in Biomedical Engineering. Volume 4
For example, most mass spectrometers are constructed so t h a t only positive ions are observed; negative ions are not detected. F u r t h e r , t h e design of all instruments is based upon a s s u m p tions about t h e physical source of t h e ions; when an ion has its origin in a region outside the source, or when it is formed with extra kinetic energy, it does not show t h e expected m/e value in a sector instrument. As a result, a body of experimental information has accumulated with respect to ionization phenomena, which is best understood in t e r m s of instrument design and use.
1 17 7 I94 iJL LI.. 1. F F E E, N i. BENZENE Fia. 28. Ion profile of human urinary bases present in a benzene extract of urine (API mass spectrometer). 50 Ε. C. HORNING, M. G. HORNING, AND R. Ν. STILL WELL T h e r e a c t a n t ions were C 6 H e t (78 amu) and C i 2 H 1 2t (156 a m u ) . Other compounds have not y e t been identified. If a narrower mass range is scanned, it is possible to increase t h e sensitivity of detection. Figure 29 shows a scan of t h e mass range from about 150 to 200 amu for t h e same sample.
F an organic solvent is introduced, secondary reactions occur leading to organic ions. M e t h a n o l and ethanol yield ions resembling those from water. Benzene gives two ions: C 6 H e + N 4 t - > CeH et + 2N 2 CeHet -\- CeHe —• Ci 2 Hi 2 t T h e formation of ions due to benzene and benzene dimer in a C I source has been noted by other investigators, including Field et al. (1969). T h e sensitivity of detection possible with this instrument is shown in Figs. 16-18. Figure 16 shows t h e record obtained by selective ion monitoring for t h e protonated form of 2,6-dimethyl-y-pyrone.
Advances in Biomedical Engineering. Volume 4 by J.H.U. Brown, J.F. Dickson