By Lennart Heimer; et al
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Extra resources for Anatomy of neuropsychiatry : the new anatomy of the basal forebrain and its implications for neuropsychiatric illness
The core-shell dichotomy has attracted a lot of attention, especially among basic scientists interested in emotional functions and adaptive behaviors and will be discussed in some detail later. For the moment, suffice it to say that the important dividing line in this part of the ventral striatum is apparently located between the core and shell rather than between the accumbens and the rest of the striatal complex. The accumbens owes much of its fame, particularly in the field of psychiatry, to the work of Arvid Carlsson and his colleagues (1958).
Application of these new techniques to a number of mammalian and nonmammalian species in the 1960s and 1970s revealed that the blueprint of forebrain organization is similar in all vertebrates (Karten, 1969; Nauta and Karten, 1970; Ebbesson, 1980; Butler and Hodos, 1996). In other words, homologues of MacLean’s limbic system are present in nonmammalian vertebrates. Northcutt and Kaas (1995) have made the point forcefully that it becomes more difficult to talk about new and old parts of the telencephalon if the fundamental plan of the forebrain is similar in all vertebrates.
It has been referred to by Durant as “more a metaphor than a theory” (in Harrington, 1991), and it has also been said to be “by far the best concept we have for linking neuroscience with the social sciences” (Cory, 2002). 1 THE TRIUNE BRAIN CONCEPT AND THE CONTROVERSY SURROUNDING IT MacLean suggested that a paleomammalian brain (represented by the limbic system, which according to MacLean is important in emotional behavior related to feeding, reproduction, and parental functions) was added in early mammals to the already existing reptilian brain (the basal ganglia, important for daily routines and ritual displays related to aggression, territoriality, and 15 16 ANATOMY OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY courtship).
Anatomy of neuropsychiatry : the new anatomy of the basal forebrain and its implications for neuropsychiatric illness by Lennart Heimer; et al